9-4-2009 Visit to Gillian, Michael, and Ashley-Jon's youngest daughter
Ipswich (pronounced /ˈɪpswɪtʃ/ (Speaker Icon.svg listen)) is a non-metropolitan district and the county town of Suffolk, England on the estuary of the River Orwell. Nearby towns are Felixstowe in Suffolk and Harwich and Colchester in Essex. The town of the same name overspills the borough boundaries significantly, with only 85% of the town's population living within the borough at the time of the 2001 Census, when it was the third-largest settlement in the United Kingdom's East of England region, and the 38th largest urban area in England.
As of 2007, the borough of Ipswich is estimated to have a population of approximately 128,000 inhabitants.
Under the Roman empire, the area around Ipswich formed an important route inland to rural towns and settlements via the Orwell and Gipping. A large Roman fort, part of the coast defences of Britain, stood at Felixstowe (13 miles, 21 km), and the largest villa in Suffolk stood at Castle Hill (north-west Ipswich). Ipswich is one of England's oldest towns, and took shape in Anglo-Saxon times as the main centre between York and London[clarification needed] for North Sea trade to Scandinavia and the Rhine. It served the Kingdom of East Anglia, and began developing in the time of King Rædwald, supreme ruler of the English (616-624). The famous ship-burial and treasure at Sutton Hoo nearby (9 miles, 14.5 km) is probably his grave. The Ipswich Museum houses replicas of the Roman Mildenhall Treasure and the Sutton Hoo treasure. A gallery devoted to the town's origins includes Anglo-Saxon weapons, jewellery and other artefacts.
The seventh-century town, called 'Gippeswick' was centred near the quay. Towards 700 AD, Frisian potters from the Netherlands area settled in Ipswich and set up the first large-scale potteries in England since Roman times. Their wares were traded far across England, and the industry was unique to Ipswich for 200 years. With growing prosperity, in about 720 AD a large new part of the town was laid out in the Buttermarket area. Ipswich was becoming a place of national and international importance. Parts of the ancient road plan still survive in its modern streets. After the invasion of 869 Ipswich fell under Viking rule. The earth ramparts circling the town centre were probably raised by Vikings in Ipswich around 900 to prevent its recapture by the English. They were unsuccessful. The town operated a Mint under royal licence from King Edgar in the 970s, which continued through the Norman Conquest until the time of King John, in about 1215. The abbreviation 'Gipes' appears on the coins.
King John granted the town its first charter in 1200, laying the mediaeval foundations of its modern civil government. In the next four centuries it made the most of its wealth, trading Suffolk cloth with the Continent. Five large religious houses, including two Augustinian Priories (St Peter and St Paul, and Holy Trinity, both mid-12th century), and those of the Greyfriars (Franciscans, before 1298), Ipswich Whitefriars (Carmelites founded 1278-79) and Blackfriars (Dominicans, before 1263), stood in mediaeval Ipswich. The last Carmelite Prior of Ipswich was the celebrated John Bale, author of the oldest English historical verse-drama (Kynge Johan, c.1538). There were also several hospitals, including the leper hospital of St Mary Magdalene, founded before 1199. During the Middle Ages the Marian Shrine of Our Lady of Grace was a famous pilgrimage destination, and attracted many pilgrims including Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon. At the Reformation the statue was taken away to London to be burned, though some claim that it survived and is preserved at Nettuno, Italy.
Around 1380, Geoffrey Chaucer satirised the merchants of Ipswich in the Canterbury Tales. Thomas Cardinal Wolsey, the son of a wealthy landowner, was born in Ipswich about 1475. One of Henry VIII's closest political allies, he founded a college in the town in 1528, which was for its brief duration one of the homes of the Ipswich School. He remains one of the town's most famed figures.
In the time of Queen Mary the Ipswich Martyrs were burnt at the stake on the Cornhill for their Protestant beliefs. A monument commemorating this event now stands in Christchurch Park. From 1611 to 1634 Ipswich was a major centre for emigration to New England. This was encouraged by the Town Lecturer, Samuel Ward. His brother Nathaniel Ward was first minister of Ipswich, Massachusetts, where a promontory was named 'Castle Hill' after the place of that name in north-west Ipswich, UK.
The painter Thomas Gainsborough lived and worked in Ipswich. In 1835, Charles Dickens stayed in Ipswich and used it as a setting for scenes in his novel The Pickwick Papers. The hotel where he resided first opened in 1518; it was then known as The Tavern and is now known as the Great White Horse Hotel. Dickens made the hotel famous in chapter XXI of The Pickwick Papers, vividly describing the hotel's meandering corridors and stairs.
In 1824, Dr George Birkbeck, with support from several local businessmen, founded one of the first Mechanics' Institutes which survives to this day as the independent Ipswich Institute Reading Room and Library. The elegant 15 Tavern Street building has been the site of the Library since 1836.
In 1797 Lord and Lady Nelson moved to Ipswich, and in 1800 Lord Nelson was appointed High Steward of Ipswich.
In the mid-19th century Coprolite was discovered, the material was mined and then dissolved in acid, the resulting mixture forming the basis of Fisons fertilizer business
Created 7 October 2009
Newark-on-Trent (generally shortened to Newark) is a market town in Nottinghamshire in the East Midlands region of England. It stands athwart the River Trent, the Great North Road and the East Coast Main Line railway.
Signpost in Newark-on-Trent
 Pre Norman history
A major silver and gold Iron Age torc, the first in Nottinghamshire and very similar to those found at Snettisham, was found in 2005 in what is now a field on the outskirts of Newark, and in 2008 was acquired by the town's museum. The origins of the town itself, however, are possibly Roman and originate in its position on the great Roman road called the Fosse Way, in the valley of the Trent. In a document which purports to be a charter of 664, Newark is mentioned as having been granted to the Abbey of Peterborough by Wulfhere. A pagan Anglo-Saxon cemetery, used from the early 5th to the early 7th centuries, has been found in Millgate, in Newark, close to both the Fosse Way and the River Trent in which cremated remains were buried in pottery urns.
In the reign of Edward the Confessor it belonged to Godiva and her husband Leofric, Earl of Mercia, who granted it to the monastery of Stow in 1055, who retained its incomes even after the Norman Conquest as came under the control of the Norman Bishop Remigius de Fécamp. After his death it changed to, and remained in the hands of, the Bishops of Lincoln from 1092 until the reign of Edward VI.
There were burgesses in Newark at the time of the Domesday survey, and in the reign of Edward III, there is evidence that it had long been a borough by prescription. The Newark wapentake in the east of Nottinghamshire was established during the period of Anglo-Saxon rule (10-11 centuries AD).
 Mediæval history
The Newark castle "was originally a Saxon fortified manor house, founded by King Edward the Elder. In 1073, Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln founded an earthwork motte and bailey fortress on the site. From 1123-33, Bishop Alexander the Magnificent completely rebuilt the castle, when founding a prominent stone structure of ornate construction." The river bridge was built about the same time under charter from Henry I, also St. Leonard's Hospital. He also gained from the king a charter to hold a five-day fair at the castle each year. He gained a charter under King Stephen to establish a mint in the town.
The town became a local centre for the wool and cloth trade, certainly by the time of Henry II a major market was established. Wednesday and Saturday markets in the town were established during the period 1156-1329 when a series of charters granted to the Bishop of Lincoln made them possible.
King John died of dysentery in Newark in 1216. Following his death as Henry III tried to bring order to the country the mercenary Robert de Gaugy refused to yield Newark Castle to the Bishop of Lincoln, its rightful owner, leading to the Dauphin of France (later King Louis VIII of France) laying an eight day siege on behalf of the king, ended by an agreement to pay the mercenary to leave.
Around the time of Edward III's death, and excluding beggars and clergy, in "1377 – Poll tax records show adult population of 1,178 making Newark one of the biggest 25 or so towns in England".
 Church of St. Mary Magdalene
Church of St. Mary Magdalene, Newark-on-Trent
* See Church of St. Mary Magdalene, Newark-on-Trent
 Tudor era
In 1457 a flood swept away the bridge over the Trent and, although there was no legal requirement for anyone to replace it, the Bishop of Lincoln, John Chaworth, financed the building of a new bridge, built of oak with stone defensive towers at either end.
Following the break with Rome in the 16th century, the subsequent establishment of the independent Church of England, and the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII had the Vicar of Newark, Henry Lytherland executed when he refused to acknowledge the king as head of the Church. The dissolution affected Newark's political landscape heavily, and even more radical changes came in 1547 when the Bishop of Lincoln exchanged ownership of the town with the Crown. Newark was incorporated under an alderman and twelve assistants in 1549, and the charter was confirmed and extended by Elizabeth I.
 Stuart era
Charles I, owing to the increasing commercial prosperity of the town, reincorporated it under a mayor and aldermen, and this charter, except for a temporary surrender under James II, continued to be the governing charter of the corporation until the Municipal Corporations Act 1835.
 The Civil War
During the English Civil War, Newark was a mainstay of the royalist cause, Charles I having raised his standard in nearby Nottingham. It was attacked in February 1643 by two troops of horsemen, but beat them back. The town fielded at times as many as 600 soldiers, and raided Nottingham, Grantham, Northampton, Gainsborough, and others with mixed success, but enough to cause it to rise to national notice. At the end of 1644 it was besieged by forces from Nottingham, Lincoln and Derby, the siege was only relieved in March by Prince Rupert of the Rhine.
Parliament commenced a new siege towards the end of January 1645 following more raiding, but this was relieved by Sir Marmaduke Langdale after about a month. Newark cavalry fought with the king's forces which were decisively defeated in the Battle of Naseby, near Leicester in June 1645.
The final siege began in November 1645, by which time the town's defences had been greatly strengthened. Two major forts had been constructed just outside the town, one, called the Queen's Sconce, to the south-west and another, the King's Sconce to the north-east, both close to the river, together with defensive walls and a water filled ditch 2¼ miles in length, around the town. In May 1646 the town was ordered to surrender by Charles I, which was still only accepted under protest by the town's garrison. After the surrender most of the defences were destroyed, including the castle which was left in essentially the state it can be seen today.
 Georgian era and early 19th century
Newark Castle and Bridge in the early 19th century.
Around 1770 the Great North Road around Newark (now the A1) was raised on a long series of arches to ensure it remained clear of the regular floods it experienced. A special Act of Parliament in 1773 allowed the creation of a town hall next to the Market Place. Designed by John Carr of York and completed in 1776, Newark Town Hall is now a Grade 1 listed building. In 1775 the Duke of Newcastle, at the time the Lord of the Manor and a major landowner of the area, built a new brick bridge with stone facing to replace the dilapidated one next to the castle. This is still one of the major thoroughfares in the town today.
A noted advocate of reform in the late 18th century at Newark was the local-born printer and newspaper owner Daniel Holt (1766-1799). He was imprisoned for printing a leaflet advocating parliamentary reform and selling a Thomas Paine pamphlet. An account of his life by Alan Dorling is in the Nottinghamshire Historian journal, spring/summer 2000, pages 9-15 and further details in the autumn/winter edition of 2003, pages 8-12.
In the milieu of parliamentary reform the duke of Newcastle evicted over a hundred tenants at Newark whom he believed supported directly or indirectly the Liberal/Radical candidate (Wilde) rather than his candidate (Michael Sadler, a progressive Conservative)at the 1829 elections. See the report in Cornelius BROWN 1907, ii, 243 following; and the report in the Times for 7 October 1829. A report in the Times of 10 September 1832 lists ten of the evicted people by name and address.
J.S. Baxter, who was a schoolboy in Newark from 1830 to 1840, contributed to The hungry forties: life under the bread tax (London, 1904), a book about the Corn Laws: "Chartists and rioters came from Nottingham into Newark, parading the streets with penny loaves dripped in blood carried on pikes, crying 'Bread or blood.'"
 Victorian era
The Victorian era saw a lot of new buildings and industry, such as Independent Chapel (1822), Holy Trinity (1836-37), Christ Church (1837), Castle Railway Station (1846), Wesleyan Chapel (1846), The Corn Exchange (1848), Methodist New Connexion Chapel (1848), W.N. Nicholson Trent Ironworks (1840s), Northgate Railway Station (1851), North End Wesleyan Chapel (1868), St. Leonard's Anglican Church (1873), Baptist Chapel (1876), Primitive Methodist Chapel (1878), Newark Hospital (1881), Ossington Coffee Palace (1882), Gilstrap Free Library (1883), Market Hall (1884), Unitarian Chapel (1884), The Fire Station (1889), Waterworks (1898) and the School of Science and Art (1900). Most of these buildings can still be seen today.
These changes and the other industrial expansion that went with them saw the population of the town grow from under 7,000 in 1800 to over 15,000 by the end of the century.
Created 7 October 2009
Yes, where Fleetwood Mac came from!
Couldn't believe I put my feet in the estuary of the Irish Sea!
Created 7 October 2009
Chester (pronounced /ˈtʃɛstər/) is a city in Cheshire, England. Lying on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales, it is home to 77,040 inhabitants, and is the largest and most populous settlement of the wider unitary authority area of Cheshire West and Chester, which had a population of 328,100 according to the 2001 Census. Chester was granted city status in 1541.
Chester was founded as a "castrum" or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix in the year 79 by the Roman Legio II Adiutrix. Chester's four main roads, Eastgate, Northgate, Watergate and Bridge, follow routes laid out at this time – almost 2,000 years ago. One of the three main Roman army bases, Deva later became a major settlement in the Roman province of Britannia. After the Romans left in the 5th century, the Saxons fortified the town against the Danes and gave Chester its name. The patron saint of Chester, Werburgh, is buried in Chester Cathedral.
Chester was one of the last towns in England to fall to the Normans in the Norman conquest of England. William the Conqueror ordered the construction of a castle, to dominate the town and the nearby Welsh border. In 1071 he created Hugh d'Avranches, the 1st Earl of Chester.
Chester has the reputation of being the "English medieval city par excellence", but many of its buildings are from the Victorian era. Along with Derry, Chester makes a claim for being one of the best preserved complete walled cities in the British Isles It has the most complete city walls in Great Britain, and most sections of the walls are listed Grade I. The Industrial Revolution brought railways, canals, and new roads to the city, which saw substantial expansion and development – Chester Town Hall and the Grosvenor Museum are examples of Victorian architecture from this period.
Main article: History of Chester
Main article: Deva Victrix
Model of how Deva Victrix would probably have looked.
The Romans founded Chester as Deva Victrix in the 70s AD in the land of the Celtic Cornovii, according to ancient cartographer Ptolemy, as a fortress during the Roman expansion northward. It was named Deva either after the goddess of the Dee, or directly from the British name for the river. The 'victrix' part of the name was taken from the title of the Legio XX Valeria Victrix which was based at Deva. A civilian settlement grew around the military base, probably originating from trade with the fortress. The fortress was 20% larger than other fortresses in Britannia built around the same time at York (Eboracum) and Caerleon (Isca Augusta); this has led to the suggestion that the fortress, rather than London (Londinium), was intended to become the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Superior. The civilian amphitheatre, which was built in the 1st century, could seat between 8,000 and 10,000 people. It is the largest known military amphitheatre in Britain, and is also a Scheduled Monument. The Minerva Shrine in the Roman quarry is the only rock cut Roman shrine still in situ in Britain. The fortress was garrisoned by the legion until at least the late 4th century. Although the army had abandoned the fortress by 410 when the Romans retreated from Britannia, the civilian settlement continued (probably with some Roman veterans staying behind with their wives and children) and its occupants probably continued to use the fortress and its defences as protection from raiders from the Irish Sea.
Deverdoeu was still one of two Welsh language names for Chester in the late 12th century; its other and more enduring Welsh name was 'Caerlleon', literally "the fortress-city of the legions", a name identical with that of the Roman fortress at the other end of the Welsh Marches at Caerleon in Monmouthshire, namely Isca Augusta. The colloquial modern Welsh name is the shortened form, Caer. The early Old English speaking Anglo Saxon settlers used a name which had the same meaning, Legacæstir, which was current until the 11th century, when, in a further parallel with Welsh usage, the first element fell out of use and the simplex name Chester emerged. From the 14th century to the 18th the city's prominent position in North West England meant that it was commonly also known as Westchester. This name was used by Celia Fiennes when she visited the city in 1698.
 Industrial history
Chester played a significant part in the Industrial Revolution which began in the North West of England in the latter part of the 18th century. The city village of Newtown, located north east of the city and bounded by the Shropshire Union Canal was at the very heart of this industry The large Chester Cattle Market and the two Chester railway stations, Chester General and Chester Northgate Station, meant that Newtown with its cattle market and canal, and Hoole with its railways were responsible for providing the vast majority of workers and in turn, the vast amount of Chester's wealth production throughout the Industrial Revolution.
Between 14 May, 2007 and 6 July, 2007, excavations were carried out in Grosvenor Park. The main aim was to find Cholmondeley's lost mansion, which was demolished in 1867.
A number of finds have come to light including:
* Plaster work from the mansion ceiling.
* Civil War musket balls
* Clay tobacco pipes (17th-18th century)
* Clay tobacco pipe waster clay from manufacture
* A base of a small Roman statue of Venus
* A Roman votive offering in the form of a lead axe head.
Canal cutting by Chester's city walls
From about 1794 to the late 1950s, when the canal-side flour mills were closed, narrowboats carried cargo such as coal, slate, gypsum or lead ore as well as finished lead (for roofing, water pipes and sewerage) from the leadworks in Egerton Street (Newtown). Grain from Cheshire was stored in granaries on the banks of the canal at Newtown and Boughton and salt for preserving food arrived from Northwich.
The Chester Canal had locks down to the River Dee. Canal boats could enter the river at high tide to load goods directly onto seagoing vessels. The port facilities at Crane Wharf, by Chester racecourse, made an important contribution to the commercial development of the north-west region.
The original Chester Canal was constructed to run from the River Dee near Sealand Road, to Nantwich in south Cheshire, and opened in 1774. In 1805, the Wirral section of the Ellesmere Canal was opened, which ran from Netherpool (now known as Ellesmere Port) to meet the Chester Canal at Chester canal basin. Later, those two canal branches became part of the Shropshire Union Canal network. This canal, which runs beneath the northern section of the city walls of Chester, is navigable and remains in use today.
 Proposed canal
The original plan to complete the Ellesmere Canal was to connect Chester directly to the Wrexham coalfields by building a broad-gauge waterway that stretched from the River Dee at Holt to the Llangollen Canal at Trevor Basin, near Wrexham. However with the advent of railways and high land prices, the plan was eventually abandoned in the mid 19th century. If the waterway had been built, canal traffic would have crossed the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct heading north to the River Dee. Boats would then have sailed on to Chester rejoining the Shropshire Union Canal through a purpose-built lock flight at Boughton.
As the route was never completed, the short length of canal north of Trevor was infilled. The Llangollen Canal, although designed to be primarily a water source from the River Dee, became a cruising waterway despite its inherent narrow nature.
It would be rail that was to bring Welsh coal to Chester.
Chester formerly had two railway stations. Chester General railway station remains in use but Chester Northgate closed in 1969 as a result of the Beeching Axe. Chester Northgate, which was located North East of the city centre, opened in 1875 as a terminus for the Cheshire Lines Committee. Trains travelled via Northwich to Manchester Central. Later services also went to Wrexham General via Shotton Station. It was demolished in the 1970s; the site is part of the Northgate Arena leisure centre.
Chester General, which opened in 1848, was designed with an Italianate frontage. It now has seven designated platforms but once had more. The station lost its original roof in the 1972 Chester General rail crash. In September 2007 extensive renovations took place to improve pedestrian access, and parking. The present station has manned ticket offices and barriers, waiting rooms, toilets, shops and a pedestrian bridge with lifts. Chester General also had a large marshalling yard and engine sheds, most of which has now been replaced with housing.
The Dee Bridge disaster in May 1847
Normal scheduled departures from Chester Station are: multiple services on the North Wales Coast Line; Virgin Trains to London Euston via Crewe; Arriva Trains Wales to Manchester Piccadilly via Warrington Bank Quay and Cardiff Central via Wrexham General; Northern Rail to Manchester Piccadilly via Northwich; Merseyrail to Liverpool on the Wirral Line.
In late 1847 the Dee bridge disaster occurred when a bridge span collapsed as a train passed over the River Dee by the Roodee. Five people were killed in the accident. The bridge had been designed and built by famed-railway engineer Robert Stephenson for the Chester and Holyhead Railway. A Royal Commission inquiry found that the trusses were made of cast iron beams that had inadequate strength for their purpose. A national scandal ensued many new bridges of similar design were either taken down or heavily altered.
Chester had an extensive tram network during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It covered an area as far west as Saltney, on the Welsh border, to Chester General station, Tarvin Road and Great Boughton in the northwest. The network featured the narrowest gauge trams (3' 6") in mainland Britain, due to an act of Parliament which deemed that they must be the least obstructive possible.
The tramway was established in 1871 by Chester Tramways Corporation. It was horse-drawn until its electrification by overhead cables in 1903. The tramway was closed, like most others in the UK, in February 1930. All that remains are small areas of uncovered track inside the bus depot, and a few tram-wire supports attached to buildings on Eastgate/Foregate Street, although substantial sections of the track remain buried beneath the current road surface.
Created 7 October 2009
The market place
Melbourne is located in Derbyshire
Melbourne is a Georgian market town (population 6,500) in South Derbyshire, England. It is about eight miles south of Derby and two miles from the River Trent.
In 1837 a then tiny settlement in Australia was named after William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, Queen Victoria's first Prime Minister, and thus indirectly takes its name from Melbourne Hall, seat of the Lamb family, and the village.
The name Melbourne name derives from "mill on the brook". It was first recorded in Domesday Book (DB 1086 Mileburne = mill stream) as a royal manor
A parish church was built around 1120.
In 1311 Robert de Holand fortified the existing royal manor house to create Melbourne Castle, though the fortification was never completed. Jean, duc de Bourbon, the most important French prisoner taken at the Battle of Agincourt (1416), was detained at the castle for 19 years.
Mary, Queen of Scots, was to be imprisoned at Melbourne Castle, but it had by now deteriorated into a bad state of repair. By the early 17th Century it had fallen into decay and was demolished, although some remains can still be seen.
Melbourne Hall was originally owned by the church; it was constructed in stages, mainly in the 17th and 18th century.
Since 2005 Melbourne has run an Arts Festival every September.
* Robert Bakewell, Ironsmith, started his career here in 1706.
* John Joseph Briggs, Naturalist lived in Kings Newton and published a History of Melbourne
* Thomas Cook Travel Agent, was born here in 1808.
* William Dexter, Painter was born here in 1808.
* Viscount Melbourne British Prime Minister, 1834 and 1835-1841.
* Rowland Ordish Civil engineer was born here in 1824.
* John Young, Cricketer was born here in 1876.
Places of Interest
Melbourne parish church has been described as a "cathedral in miniature" and is one of five churches in Melbourne. The Domesday Book records a church and priest here in 1086. The present church was built about 1120, and most of the original masonry is intact, except for the East end which has been refurbished. The roofs, naves, aisles and the aisle windows date from the restoration of the 1630s. There was also a restoration done by Gilbert Scott in 1859-62.
Melbourne Hall was originally the rectory house for the Bishop of Carlisle, but was substantially rebuilt by Thomas and George Coke in the early 18th century. The hall's gardens were laid out with the assistance of Royal gardeners in 1704. They contain examples of ironwork by Derby ironsmith, Robert Bakewell. Melbourne Pool was originally the mill pool for the hall's mill. The hall is open to the public in August.
The Thomas Cook Memorial Cottages in High Street were built by Thomas Cook who started popular travel in England. Cook was born in Melbourne in 1808 though his birth-place was demolished in 1968. The buildings built in 1890-91 include fourteen cottages, a bakehouse, a laundry and Mission Hall. They still provide accommodation for some of Melbourne's senior citizens.
Melbourne Market Place is the location of Melbourne's main shops. It is dominated by the Co-op Building and monument which was refurbished in 1998.
 Culture, Industry and Transport
The town contains many Georgian buildings and in the 19th Century was a centre for framework knitting and boot and shoe manufacture eg Fairystep Shoes. Market gardening has always been a major part of the economy, though now only a handful remain. East Midlands Airport, five miles to the east of the town, was opened in the 1960s and has now become a significant regional transport hub. Then town's bus service is run by Arriva Midlands.Previously,TrentBarton maintained a small garage here,allocated approximately 7 vehicles but this is now a Budgens supermarket. School Buses run to Chellaston every morning and afternoon using the 205, 206, 207, 208 and 209 buses, run by Harpurs and Hawkes. It maintained routes to Swadlincote,Derby,Aston-on-Trent and Weston-on-Trent. There have been links to East Midlands Airport which recently were axed due to low passenger numbers and poor quality service. A new route is expected by Summer 2010.
Shops in Melbourne include - The Spar - Budgens - Melbourne News - Fish and Clips - Birds - Elle of Melbourne - Blatch's - The Bay Tree - Melbourne Cafe - Co-op Travel - And a number of cafe shops
Services in Melbourne include - HSBC - Natwest - Post Office - Co-op Pharmacy - Fair Trade
In the past Melbourne had three brass bands which disappeared over the years. In 1992 a new group formed, and became Melbourne Town Band. The Town Band continue to play at Melbourne's events today. These include the carnival, held every Summer and the carols at the Market Place.
Created 7 October 2009
Grantham is a market town within the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England. It stands athwart the East Coast Main Line railway (London-Edinburgh), the historic A1 main north-south road, and the River Witham. Grantham is located approximately 26 miles (42 km) south of the city of Lincoln, and approximately 24 miles (39 km) east of Nottingham. The resident population is 34,592 in around 18,000 households, including the village of Great Gonerby.
The town is best known as the birthplace of former prime minister Margaret Thatcher, and the place where Isaac Newton went to school. It is within short walking distance of an ancient Roman road, and was the scene of Oliver Cromwell's first advantage over Royalists during the English Civil War at Gonerby Moor. Grantham is also notable for having the first female police officers in the United Kingdom, in 1914. 2 Post offices were closed in Grantham in 2008 as part of the Post Office Network Change programme.
Created 6 October 2009
Edinburgh (pronounced /ˈɛdɪnb(ə)rə/ (Speaker Icon.svg listen), ED-in-brə or ED-in-bə-rə; Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann) is the capital city of Scotland. It is the second largest Scottish city, after Glasgow, and the seventh-most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council is one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas.
Located in the south-east of Scotland, Edinburgh lies on the east coast of the Central Belt, along the Firth of Forth, near the North Sea. . Owing to its rugged setting and vast collection of Medieval and Georgian architecture, including numerous stone tenements, it is often considered one of the most picturesque cities in Europe.
The city forms part of the City of Edinburgh council area; the city council area includes urban Edinburgh and a 30-square-mile (78 km2) rural area.
Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Parliament. The city was one of the major centres of the Enlightenment, led by the University of Edinburgh, earning it the nickname Athens of the North. The Old Town and New Town districts of Edinburgh were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995. There are over 4,500 listed buildings within the city. In the 2008 mid year population estimates, Edinburgh had a total resident population of 471,650. Edinburgh is well-known for the annual Edinburgh Festival, a collection of official and independent festivals held annually over about four weeks from early August. The number of visitors attracted to Edinburgh for the Festival is roughly equal to the settled population of the city. The most famous of these events are the Edinburgh Fringe (the largest performing arts festival in the world), the Edinburgh International Festival, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, and the Edinburgh International Book Festival
Further information: Timeline of Edinburgh history and Etymology of Edinburgh
During its pre-history in the Iron and Bronze Ages, humans existed in the area around Holyrood, Craiglockhart Hill and the Pentland Hills, leaving traces of primitive stone settlements. At the time of its actual foundation, it was a part of the Kingdom of Northumbria, an Anglian kingdom on the east side of Great Britain, spanning from the Humber Estuary to the Firth of Forth. The area surrounding Castle Rock, then known as "Lookout Hill," became the foundation point. On the hill Edwin of Northumbria a powerful Christian king founded the fortress to secure the northern part of his territory against invasion. This fortress was known in the Brythonic language as Din Eidyn, which means "Edwin's fort" after the king. As the fortress grew, many houses were relocated towards the ridge of Castlehill. A layout began to form, when householders would be given the option to be granted a "toft" or stretch of garden behind the ridge. The name eventually developed through the English language into first Edwinesburch and then into Edinburgh, the name it is known by today.
Hereford Mappa Mundi, featuring Edinburgh in 1300.
In the 10th century the Scots captured the position. Then in the 12th century a small town flourished at the base of the castle known as Edinburgh, along side which another community rose up to the East around the Abbey of Holyrood, known as Canongate. In the 13th century these became Royal Burghs. As a consequence of Edinburgh's earlier Anglo-Saxon rule and settlement, Edinburgh and the Border counties lay in a disputed zone between England and Scotland, England claiming all Anglo-Saxon Domains as English territory, and Scotland claiming all territory as far south as Hadrian's Wall. The result was a long series of border wars and clashes, which often left Edinburgh Castle under English control. It was not until the 15th century, when Edinburgh remained for the most firmly under Scottish control, that King James IV of Scotland undertook to move the Royal Court from Stirling to Holyrood, making Edinburgh by proxy Scotland's capital.
As Edinburgh remained under Scottish rule, with the nearby port of Leith, Edinburgh flourished both economically and culturally. In 1603, following King James VI's accession to the English and Irish thrones, James VI instituted the first executive Parliament of Scotland which met in the Great Hall of Edinburgh Castle, later finding a home in the Tolbooth, before moving to purpose-built Parliament House, Edinburgh, which is now home to the Supreme Courts of Scotland. In 1639 disputes over the planned merger, between the Presbyterian Church and the Anglican Church, and the demands by Charles I, to reunify the divided St. Giles' Cathedral, led to the Bishops' Wars, which in turn led to the English Civil War, and the eventual occupation of Edinburgh by the Commonwealth forces of Oliver Cromwell. In the 1670s King Charles II commissioned the rebuilding of Holyrood Palace. 1732 saw Lord Lyon King of Arms grant a coat of arms to the Town Council, a modified version of which is used today as the city's official emblem.
During the last Jacobite rebellion, Edinburgh was briefly occupied by Jacobite forces before their march south into England. After the retreat of Jacobite forces from Derby, it was equally briefly occupied by Hessian forces under the command of the Prince William, Duke of Cumberland before their march north to the Highlands.
An 1802 illustration of Edinburgh from the west.
Following the defeat of Jacobites there was a long period of reprisals and pacification. At this time, the Hanoverian monarch wished to stamp his identity on Edinburgh and new developments to the north of the castle were named in honour of the King and his family; George Street, Frederick Street, Hanover Street, Queen Street, Princes Street, Castle Street and with control of the ‘Rose’ of England and the ‘Thistle’ of Scotland these names were also allocated to streets. The original plan for this build was to be constructed in the form of King James VI's Union Flag and this shape can be detected when viewing the layout of the aforementioned streets from above.
Out of the problems left behind by the consequences of the Jacobite rebellion came a number of Scottish intellectuals, many from Edinburgh, including Adam Smith, who promoted the idea of Britishness. It was during this period, that Edinburgh expanded beyond the limits of its city walls, with the creation of the New Town, following the draining of the Nor Loch, which has since become Princes Street Gardens. Edinburgh became a major cultural centre, earning it the nickname Athens of the North because of the Greco-Roman style of the New Town's architecture, as well as the rise of the Scottish intellectual elite in the city, who were increasingly leading both Scottish and European intellectual thought.
Edinburgh is particularly noted for its fine architecture, especially from the Georgian period. In 17th-century Edinburgh, a defensive city wall defined the boundaries of the city. Due to the restricted land area available for development, the houses increased in height instead. Buildings of 11 stories were common, and there are records of buildings as high as 14 stories, and thus are thought to be the pioneers for the modern-day skyscraper. Many of the stone-built structures can still be seen today in the old town of Edinburgh.
In the 19th century, Edinburgh, like many cities, industrialised, but most of this was undertaken in Leith, which meant that Edinburgh as a whole did not grow greatly in size. Glasgow soon replaced it as the largest and most prosperous city in Scotland, becoming the industrial, commercial and trade centre, while Edinburgh remained almost purely Scotland's intellectual and cultural centre, which it remains to this day as one of the greatest cultural centres of the UK and the world.
Created 6 October 2009
Belvoir Castle (pronounced Beaver) En-belvoir_castle.ogg listen (help·info) is a stately home in the English county of Leicestershire, overlooking the Vale of Belvoir (grid reference SK820337). It is a Grade I listed building.
The castle is near several villages, including Redmile, Woolsthorpe, Knipton, Harston, Harlaxton, Croxton Kerrial and Bottesford, and the town of Grantham.
A corner of the castle is still used as the family home of the Manners family and remains the seat of the Dukes of Rutland.
* 1 Castle
* 2 Estate
* 3 Present use
* 4 References
* 5 External links
A Norman castle originally stood on the high ground in this spot. During the English Civil War, it was one of the more notable strongholds of the king's supporters. It eventually passed into the hands of the Dukes of Rutland and following a fire, was rebuilt by the wife of the 5th Duke, and gained its present Gothic castle look. The architect James Wyatt was chiefly responsible for this restructuring, and the result is a building which bears a superficial resemblance to a medieval castle, its central tower reminiscent of Windsor Castle. The present Castle is the fourth building to have stood on the site since Norman times.
Belvoir was a royal manor until it was granted to Robert, 1st baron de Ros in 1257. When that family died out in 1508 the manor and castle passed to George Manners, who inherited the castle and barony through his mother. His son was created Earl of Rutland in 1525, and John Manners, 9th Earl of Rutland was created Duke of Rutland in 1703. So Belvoir castle has been the home of the Manners family for five hundred years, and seat of the dukes of Rutland for over three centuries.
The castle is open to the public and contains many works of art. The Queen's Royal Lancers Regimental Museum of the 17th and 21st Lancers was established here in 1964 but was required to leave in October 2007. The highlights of the tour are the lavish staterooms, the most famous being the Elizabeth Saloon (named after the wife of the 5th Duke), the Regents Gallery and the Roman inspired State Dining Room.
The castle sits in a vast estate of almost 15.000 acres (120 km²). The landscaped grounds, nearer the castle, are also open and the Root Houses, built by the fifth Duke's wife, can also be seen. The present Duchess is restoring Belvoir Gardens, which includes the Secret Valley Garden and the Rustic Summerhouse of 1800.
The estate is open to the public and offers a range of outdoor activities - shooting, fishing, quad biking and four-by-four driving. Throughout the year they host sheep, duck and dog exhibitions.
The Duke and Duchess of Rutland also manage Manners Arms , a country hotel and restaurant on the Belvoir estate.
 Present use
A corner of the castle is still used as the family home of the Manners family. The castle's name means beautiful view.
"The name "Belvoir",is in fact, a Norman import by the French-speaking conquerors, though the native Anglo-Saxon population was unable to pronounce such a foreign word, preferring to call it "Beaver Castle". Belvoir Castle is still pronounced "Beaver" -- despite its spelling -- to this very day, which may actually go a long way to explaining the age-long animosity between the insulted French and the traditionalist English.
Created 6 October 2009
History of York
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York within England.
The history of York as a city dates to the beginning of the first millennium AD but archaeological evidence for the presence of people in the region of York date back much further to between 8000 and 7000 BC. As York was a town in Roman times, its Celtic name is recorded in Roman sources as Eboracum and Eburacum; after 400, Anglo-Saxons took over the area and adapted the name by folk etymology to Old English Eoforwīc, which means "wild-boar town", and the Vikings, who took over the area later, in turn adapted the name by folk etymology to Norse Jórvík meaning "horse bay."
After the Saxon settlement of the North of England, Anglian York was first capital of Deira and later Northumbria, and by the early 7th century, York was an important royal centre for the Northumbrian kings. Following the Norman Conquest of 1066, York was substantially damaged but in time became an important urban centre as the administrative centre of the county of Yorkshire. York prospered during much of the later medieval era; the later years of the 14th and the earlier years of the 15th centuries were characterised by particular prosperity. During the English Civil War, the city was regarded as a Royalist stronghold and was besieged and eventually captured by Parliamentary forces under Lord Fairfax in 1644. After the war, York slowly regained its former pre-eminence in the North, and, by 1660, was the third-largest city in England after London and Norwich.
Modern York has 34 Conservation Areas, 2,084 Listed buildings and 22 Scheduled Ancient Monuments in its care. Every year, thousands of tourists flock to see the surviving medieval buildings, interspersed with Roman and Viking remains and Georgian architecture.
Created 6 October 2009
Barbara & David our hosts for weeks at their home-awesome couple-so welcoming
Jon's daughters-Katheryn,m Gillian and son Paul and significant others-Chris with Katheryn, Michael and daughter Ashley with Gillian and Ruth, Tom and cutie Izzy with his son Paul
Created 4 October 2009
Visit to Gillian, Michael, and Ashley-Jon's youngest daughter
Created 3 October 2009
On the way to Scotland-Beautiful hills and valleys-narrow roads-fast speedlimits!
Created 3 October 2009