Sward's adventures

24 March 2009
15 March 2009
14 March 2009
14 March 2009
14 March 2009 | Man-O-War Continued
27 February 2009
27 February 2009
24 February 2009
22 February 2009
19 February 2009
18 February 2009
17 February 2009
11 February 2009

Marsh Harbor to Guana Cay

25 March 2009
I have had such an awesome day. It was such an incredible rush! I left Marsh Harbor about noon after raising my main sail with 2 reefs on the anchor. I raised the anchor and ran back to the helm. As I was leaving the anchorage two guys on their own boats gave me 2 thumbs up since they saw what I did by myself. I was so proud that I was able to do it.

When I got out of Marsh Harbor I hauled the jib, got on course and shut the engine down. The wind was just under 20 and the seas had calmed down a bit. What an incredible rush and excitement. I was sailing from 5-6.3 kts. on the blue waters of the Bahama's on a georgeous day in March. It doesn't get much better than that-only if I had someone to share it with. I did call some friends here in Guana to tell them-just wasn't the same.

I only had to pick up a few things on the floor that hadn't been battoned down-not bad!

I'll write more later after the pot luck-I'll take my ever popular cheese dip-so easy and always a hit.- Just needed to write this now!

Guana Cay to Marsh Harbor

24 March 2009
Monday, March 16th

Judy was going to fly out of Marsh Harbor on Tuesday about noon, so we left Guana Cay and sailed to Marsh Harbor-again the wind on the nose, but we were able to go off course and have a great sail, but get there much later than if we had gone straight or on the course set on the charts. We decided we would still get there in time to go snorkeling at another reef we were told about so we enjoyed the sail. Again, I got a slip so it would be easier for Jude to get her stuff off the boat-again at Mango's.

We got ready to go snorkeling in a hurry since it was getting after 3:00 and the light was going to go too low in the sky to see as well. We got in the dingy and went across the harbor to the "Jib Room" restaurant and marina. We parked the dingy and walked up the hill to the street. We walked not too far, until we found the path to the beach-not much of a path. We saw the moorings that we were told about that we could have tied up the boat or dingy to, to swim from there, but it was a long way around to do that. We got in the water and swam out-not too far. What an unbelievable sight we saw. I've never seen so many different kinds of fish with all colors. It was awesome. The reef wasn't big or exciting, but the fish sure were. I can't say enough about it. It is called "Mermaid's Reef". I took some pictures with my throw away underwater camera that I will get developed when I get somewhere! I don't know if that worked at all or not.

We wanted to go out for dinner and wanted to try Curly Tails because we had heard stuff going on there the week before and we wanted to see the happening place! We first went in the restaurant and sat down. It looked expensive. We looked at the menu and decided we didn't want to spend $35-40 on dinner, so we left and went upstairs to the bar and got a drink and a bar menu-good sandwiches, and the ever popular rum punches. Nothing exciting going on so we left. I think we looked at the pictures taken that day and tried to get them on an email for Judy to send-very frustrating using her Comcast on my computer. She said it's different, and I don't know about it so it was tense getting it done. I hadn't taken any more pictures since she was taking them with her camera. So I will download the ones I have from that time.

On Tuesday, Judy got her stuff ready and off the boat pretty quickly. I had to pay for water for unlimited amount for $5.00 so I took advantage of it to wash down the boat and fill the tanks. We wanted to go out for breakfast, but walked back and forth on the street and couldn't find a place. Finally we had to give in to a place that opened in about 15 minutes at 11:00 for lunch. It was ok, but a good view of the harbor.

At noon, Judy got picked up by the taxi and with hugs and kisses she was off. She said she had a really good time and much needed rest and relaxation.

I needed to get off the dock by 1:00 so hurried to get ready and did a great job of backing out with the wind blowing me in a way that wasn't good. I was glad it worked out since I did such and incredibly bad job of docking the week before, I needed to redeem myself! I just went out to the anchorage and found a place to anchor-where I still am-Monday night the 24th. The weather deteriorated right after Judy left the dock. The clouds and wind started. The wind hasn't subsided since. It's been blowing 20-25 ever since. I have to go through an area north of here called the "Whale" which is a route that curves around a few islands and out an opening to the Atlantic and can be rough in windy conditions, so everyday on the radio they have a "Whale report" to ask if anybody has gone thru it to let everyone know the conditions. With this wind, it hasn't been navigable so I've stayed put here. I've kind of veg'd out, but finally today did something useful. I took out the window I replaced last summer and rebedded it. I didn't like how it came out so knew I would redo it, but also knew it would be a long unpleasant job so have put it off. I did replace one other and still have 4 more to do-another day!

So tomorrow-Wednesday, I have decided to go back to Guana. At Grabbers, on Wednesday nights they have a pot luck dinner. I had heard that as many as 125 people were there a couple of weeks ago-all cruisers. Rebecca's mother and brother came the other day and have gone to Treasure Cay and my be at Guana tomorrow and Lee and Barb on Wind Dancer left here today to go to Treasure Cay where they hadn't been to yet, then said they would go to Guana tomorrow, so I said I'd meet them there.

I forgot to say, that when Rebecca's mother and brother came in the other day, IB and Rebecca invited me to go to dinner with them. I thought they would want to be alone since they just got here, but IB said, "I want them to know that we have friends, and we've invited everybody"! So dinner was at Mango's. Lee and Barb, and I came. I didn't know Lee and Barb had gotten here. Then a short while later 2 other couples arrived. Some other people that IB and Rebecca had met along the way. One of the couples have a Hinkley. Apparently the one that the owner had. One of the best. For those who aren't in the know, the Hinkley's are top of the line for sailboats. It was a nice evening.

The next day, I saw people with the same dingy as I have and I went over to their boat to talk to them about it. They were very nice people as sailors go. They were originally from Yugoslavia and emigrated to Canada 20 years ago. They invited me for cocktails later. Which I did. Very enjoyable.

Earlier in the day, I went to the laundromat. What an expensive adventure that was. It was $2.50 per load for the washer and 25 cents for 2 minutes in the dryers. I don't know how many quarters I put in, but it was alot-I had 3 loads. Beach towels, and sheets for Judy.

I haven't been off the boat since. I'm watching the weather to try to get moving. I need to get to Annapolis to start working, although I'm not looking forward to the trip. I never got the enclosure for the cockpit that I wanted to keep me warmer, so hope the weather is warmer so I don't freeze like I did coming south. Everyone was complaining about that-those that came south. I've wanted to get started right after Judy left, but it still looks like it will be awhile. I just hope to get thru the Whale on Thursday or Friday since it looks like the wind will subside a little for a few short hours before it cranks up again. I will go to Green Turtle Cay from Guana Cay. Then I will at least be able to move further north and west to the area where I would leave the Bahama's to go back-that would be Memory Rock-that I came to when we came across as the first destination-although it is only a rock!

So, I'm up to date-Tuesday, March 24th-11 PM

Guana Cay Continued

24 March 2009
Well, as some of you have mentioned, I have been delinquent in continuing my blog entries, so I'll try to remember what was been happening in the past week or so.

I ended off with cocktails on my boat and making plans with IB and Rebecca to snorkel and Nippers the next day. Well we did both. We walked up to Nippers and then walked down the long stairs to the beach-pictures of that somewhere.

Sunday, March 15th?

We got our snorkeling gear on and headed out to the reef. The water was again beautiful. The reef was a bit disappointing. Not a lot to see, but a nice swim never the less.

When we got out, we walked back up to Nippers and got ourselves several Rum Punches-IB, Rebecca, Judy and I. We sat by the pool-Judy and Rebecca eventually jumped in. I was trying to dry off. Rebecca asked me if I was going to be here on the 7th of April since it was going to be IB's birthday. I said no, but I'd like to get him something for it, so I went in the store. Big mistake! I spent way too much money for a Nippers, kind of, mini skirt. Looks pretty good and matches my bathing suit, but-----.

We were a bit buzzed and decided to go to Grabbers. Don't think there were any more rum punches, but we had had enough already. The sunset was beautiful, and it got kind of crazy. Rebecca and another girl we had met at Nippers, on another boat with her husband, jumped into that pool and got me to go too. Very crazy time. Judy sat and chatted with the husband of the girl in the pool. It was fun. Good day overall.

Treasure Cay to Guana Cay

15 March 2009
I made corn muffin pancakes for breakfast while Judy lounged in bed. We had breakfast and I said it's probably time to head out. We got ready, I thought secured everything and expected the wind to be as stated-17 kts, but out of the south east-of course right in the direction that we were going. We got out of the harbor at Treasure Cay and yes, the wind was on the nose of course, but I put the sails up thinking we could be a bit off course to be able to sail-not. The wind was 17-25 or so. I decided to motor sail since we couldn't get anywhere sailing. I tried to tack, but we were just going sideways-no forward momentum. After we got past the 3.3 foot area, I was able to head to port and got a lot of speed then-about 4.5 to 5 kts. That was great. As we tacked, everything went flying. You always find out what you forgot to secure! Just as we got to Fisher's Bay/Great Guana to anchor, i took the sails down. As we were going in to find a space to anchor, we passed by "Passport" and waved to IB and Rebecca. Seems they have been there quite awhile doing their teak-almost done! There are many boats anchored here-I was surprised.

I found water on the floor in front of the stove and didn't understand where it was coming from-never had water there before. Turns out Judy's port/window on the hull side was open and lots of water came in. All of her bedding was wet. She stripped it all out, and we put the matteress etc, on deck and took short naps, and she woke up and said it's raining. So we had to hurry to get everything in. Well, it only rained for 5 minutes or so! Right after that, IB and Rebecca came by to visit. The boat was a mess with all that stuff around. They didn't mind. IB came with his own rum punch and I made more for Judy and I and more for IB. Rebecca didn't want any today. We had a nice visit, and decided to go snorkling and to Nippers tomorrow. Looking forward to that. I barbequed chicken on my new grill. I burned it/cooked it too long again-as always I'm cooking in the dark. I have to do better.

I found that the bottom of my freezer section in the fridge doesn't get to freezing temperature, so all the wonderful steaks and ribs were bad. I was really looking forward to a great steak on my new grill, but they all had to be thrown away. What a bummer.

Judy decided to sleep in the cockpit tonight since her bedding is till wet. I thought she would rather sleep on the settee inside, but she said she wanted to sleep outside.

The wind is still blowing pretty hard, we're rocking and rolling.


15 March 2009
I'd like to write about the history of the Bahama's so you can learn more about them as I have. So the following is something that was written in my chartbook that I thought was a good commenetary.

Whether you first approach these islands from the air or from the sea, you will find the breathtaking scenery majestic. You'll instantly see why the Spanish named the shallow area jutting out of the ocean "Bajamar" or low tide. The varied colors of the water will catch and hold your eye--a graduated spectrum from the pale aquas of the shallow banks through the deeper teals and on to the midnight blues of the ocean depths. The water colors, combined with sparkling beaches, swaying palms and azure skies give the Bahamas a unique stamp. An archipelago of abvout 7000 islands and nearly 2400 cays and rocks., the island nation stretches for almost 750 miles off the southeast coast of Florida. Its estimated 2005 population was of Nassau. About 85 percent of these people are decendants of West African slaves, with the remaining progeny coming from the first English settlers by way of Bermuca and the Loyalist expatriate Americans. This islanfd nation is a special one, bobbing in the sea and affected by whatever political, social, and economic streams flow its way. Like an anchored ship, it has ridden out many storms.


The Arawak Indians were the first of many currents affecting the islands. They arrived from present-day South American via the Antilles, then they were forced northward by the canibalistic Carib tribes. In the last tide of their migration, the "island people" (Lukku-cairi) or Lucayans came to the southern and central Bahamas in the 6th and 7th centuries.

A thousand years later, the next stream of influence in the formation of the peoples of the Bahamas was the arrival of the Spanish conquerors in the 15th and 16th centuries. The gentile, peace-loving Lucayan Arawaks were overpowered by the Conquistadors, who were greedy for cold and supposed spices.

The landfall of the first exploring Spaniard, Christopher Columbus, is the object of some debate. Though the Bahamian government celebrated the 500th anniversary of Columbus' October 12th 1492, arrival in the New World in present-day San Salador, there is convgincing evidence that Samana Cay was actually the spot. Even so, residents of Cat Island and Rum Cay will tell you that he landed on their islands. first.

Any, Columbus voyage introduced a wave of colonization that led to the establishment of a large Spanish Empire in the New World. However, as Michael Cration's History of the Bahamas indicates,...."There is no evidence that the Spaniards ever made a permanent settlement in the Bahamas" Though the Spanish ruled the islands for more than a century, the main result of their visitations was the decimation fo the Lucayan population. By 1520, those Indians who had not succumbed to disease and starvation were taken to other Caribbean islands as slaaves to work the plantations and mines. Their cigvilization virtually vanished. Though Columbus' personal motives were, by all accounts, pure, the long-range effect of his trips to the islands devastated an entire culture.


In the wake of the Spaniards came the English wave, which washed over the Bahamas beginning in the late 16th century, with interest sparked by trade in brazil wood, ambergris, and salt. Yet, it was not until 1647 that the first permanent settlement (also the first republic in the New World) was made on Eleuthera by Puritans escaping a religious squabble in Bermuda. Another group, the lords Proprietor of South Carolina, goverened the Bahamas beginning in 1670, in 1695 a fort was built on New Providence to protect the growing town of Nassau from the marauding Spanish.

Meanwhile, bucaneers, privateers and pilates provided considerable influence through the period. At one time there were reportedly 1,000 pirates in Nassauu alone. The infamous Blackbeard, Henry Morgan, and Annie Bonney dominated the area for almost a century, but the tide was stemmed by the 1718 arrival of Govenor Woodes Rogers, whom the British sent in to assume direct control, bolster the locals, develop a plan to defend Nassau, and restore civil law. His administration did much to calm the turbulent seas and steer the Bahamas to the calmer waters of English rule with its system of parliamementary law still in effect today. In fact, though the Bahamas gained independence in 1973, English influence remains evident in the stately architecture, starched policemen, governmental pomp and ceremony, and sculpted shrubbery.

Storms in other areas washed up on Bahamian shores-the American Revolution brought blockade and gun running and even capture of Fort Montagu for a short period of time. Its aftermath saw a flood of those loyal to the British attempt to transplant the plantation economy to the Bahamas. Unfortunately the poor soil and shortfall of raid doomed that to failure. The Loyalsist decendants and their slaves remain as boatbuilders, fishermen and pothole farmers today. Far a long period of time, many generations survived from "wrecking" as booty came to their shores in the form of ships that foundered in the uncharterd waters. It wasn't until the mid 1800's that the Imperial Board of Trade began placing lighthouses to warn of these reefs and shoals, thereby putting an end to wrecking.

Slavery was halted with the Emancipation Act of 1834. After an apprenticeship, slaves were completely freed by 1838. Many were given land, but their problems were not over as they had no resources or training to prepare them for the personal freedom of supporting theselves.

A brief wave of prosperity came to Nassau during the Americal Civil War. The city's location was ideal as a Confederate suupply base. but as the tide of war receded, Nassau's economy went into a half-century slump, further weakened by poverty, epidemics and hurricanes.

It took the successive tidal waves of two World Wars, with the highly profitable rum-running days of the Prohibition era, to bring the Bahamas truly into the twentieth century. Strides in communication and transportation coupled to bring the economic salvation of tourism to the inviting palm-lined beaches of these emerald isles. All other courses of livelihood-fishing, farming, sponging, salt mining, privateering, bucccanering, pirating, wrecking, and shipbuilding-have been surpassed by the success of the tourism industry, which brings in over half of the gross national product today. The twenty-first century is making its mark with huge development by foreign interests.

An enormous political wave affecting the country's direction came with Bahamian independence from Great Britian. Unfortunately, the bright prospects were marred by 25 years of rule by the corrupt Pinding government. It fell to the second Prime Minister, Hubert Ingraham, and the Free National Movement party to attempt to lift the country into prosperity of the 21st century through electrification fo most islands, better roads, and telephone service. In 2002 the PLP took over again with Perry Christie as the new Prime Minister. the PLP's focus is on extensive development to shore up the Bahamian treasury. All of this not only aids the tourism industry but also brings in more revenue to the country from foreign development dollars. Favorable tax laws have allowed the country to become an international banking center as well.

As you trace the marks on the various waves on the island nation, you can have a better understand of where it stands today and what makes it and its people so distinctive.

Man-O-War to Treasure Cay

14 March 2009
Man-O-War Cay to Treasure Cay
March 11, 2009

We checked the tide schedule and found we needed to leave Man-O-War Cay by 10 AM to be able to go thru the channel so we did. There was only about 2-6 kt.s of wind, but I put the sails up and tried to sail. We did motor sail since we hardly had any wind-sometimes there wasn't any wind, but it was good to be sailing or trying. Eventually it came up to about 6-8 and we got a little push.

Again the entrance was a weird one. We hung out on the boat for the day and I made a pizza and of course rum punch. It's fun deciding which ingredients we'll pick each day.

March 12, 2009

We finally got our act together after I make egg sandwiches for us at about 11 AM. I didn't feel well,
I rested a little then we went ashore. We checked in with the marina office as the sign said to do. I was surprised to find I had to pay $10.00 for mooring, but we were able to use all the facilies-pool, showers etc.

We walked to the beach as the marina manager had given us directions to. Not far-only a 5-10 minute walk. What a sight-wait till you see the pictues-they don't do it justice. The sand was so fine and beautiful, the water was turquoise, there were yellow umbrella's and an open air restaurant/bar. We couldn't believe it. Judy said it was the most beautiful sight she had ever seen.

At the gate of the beach area we saw a sign that said no loafing or coolers. We got a kick out of that. As we walked, 4 people came by with beach stuff-they definately seemed like sailors, so I said to them that the sign said there would be no loafing an that I hoped they weren't planning that. They laughed and we got to joking about it. After we walked the beach a bit we went to the bar for a rum punch on the deck-there were those folks. We sat next to them and talked. They were a fun group and said they had parked their boat 2 slips away from me in Marsh Harbor and I remembered giving them a thumbs up when she so professionally put the line over the piling like she knew what she was doing. They told us that the loafing police had already gone by and it was now ok for us to loaf. The owners of the boat are from Beaufort, NC. I said I had worked there at West Marine and she said she thought she remembered me from there!!

We came back to the boat and got ready to go snorkling. IB had given me secret coordinates to a really good reef to check out here, so I put them in my hand held GPS and we headed out on a quest to find some good snorkling. It was a 2 mile dingy ride-a bit bumpy. We finally found it-it didn't seem like it was going to be that good from the area we saw. Judy was uncomfortable with both of us getting out of the dingy out in the middle of the Bay to swim and she was a bit afraid of it. So I said I would go in and check it out, and that if it was good, we could go one at a time. She was ok with that. I finally found the area. It wasn't big, but there were lots of pretty fish and I saw a turtle about 15-18" big. She thought she was a cannonball. I told her to pick it up and take it!! She said, no, I'm not going down there! It was a lot of fun. We, with great difficulty got back in the dingy, had some snacks and started to head back. Judy said, can you imagine me at almost 70 and you at almost 59, going out in the ocean by ourselves doing this? What would people think? I said they would think we were pretty cool and that we got the interest and ambition from Mom who would have been so proud of us and would have wanted to be there with us.

We got back to the boat and decided to go to shore to use the showers. It is college break week, so there are lots of college kids and elementary age kids here. The showers weren't very private with all of them in and out. The restaurant was having pizza night-which is every Thursday with live music and it was packed. We didn't bring any money in and had planned to eat on the boat, but decided it would be more fun to have pizza there. I took the dingy back to the boat with our shower stuff and got some money and went back. We had fun-lots of people. I was still feeling kind of funky/not well, so came back and went right to bed.

Friday, March 13, 2009

This morning the wind is about 25 kts. Was forcast to be 15. Many boats are pouring into the anchorage. Judy is checking it all out from the cockpit with her bathing suit on. We were planning on going to spend a few hours at the beach, but I wanted to get this done, so I'm still in bed finishing. It is cloudy now and I think Judy is napping in the cockpit We'll see what the next plan will be.

So I'm finally up to date again. Judy is here until Tuesday, so we'll have to be back in Marsh Harbor that morning. I think tomorrow-weather permitting we'll go to Guana Cay.

I now need to figure out how to get this cut and pasted from "Document-Word Pad" to the blog and download the phhoto's. Several people have urged me to continue my blog. Sorry, as I said, I had a few days of typing only to have it deleted and didn't want to start again.
Vessel Name: DreamOn
Vessel Make/Model: Freedom 32
DreamOn's Photos - Main
9-4-2009 Visit to Gillian, Michael, and Ashley-Jon's youngest daughter Ipswich (pronounced /ˈɪpswɪtʃ/ (Speaker Icon.svg listen)) is a non-metropolitan district and the county town of Suffolk, England on the estuary of the River Orwell. Nearby towns are Felixstowe in Suffolk and Harwich and Colchester in Essex. The town of the same name overspills the borough boundaries significantly, with only 85% of the town's population living within the borough at the time of the 2001 Census, when it was the third-largest settlement in the United Kingdom's East of England region, and the 38th largest urban area in England.[1] As of 2007, the borough of Ipswich is estimated to have a population of approximately 128,000 inhabitants. History Under the Roman empire, the area around Ipswich formed an important route inland to rural towns and settlements via the Orwell and Gipping.[citation needed] A large Roman fort, part of the coast defences of Britain, stood at Felixstowe (13 miles, 21 km), and the largest villa in Suffolk stood at Castle Hill (north-west Ipswich).[citation needed] Ipswich is one of England's oldest towns,[2][3] and took shape in Anglo-Saxon times as the main centre between York and London[clarification needed] for North Sea trade to Scandinavia and the Rhine. It served the Kingdom of East Anglia, and began developing in the time of King Rædwald, supreme ruler of the English (616-624). The famous ship-burial and treasure at Sutton Hoo nearby (9 miles, 14.5 km) is probably his grave. The Ipswich Museum houses replicas of the Roman Mildenhall Treasure and the Sutton Hoo treasure. A gallery devoted to the town's origins includes Anglo-Saxon weapons, jewellery and other artefacts. The seventh-century town, called 'Gippeswick'[4] was centred near the quay. Towards 700 AD, Frisian potters from the Netherlands area settled in Ipswich and set up the first large-scale potteries in England since Roman times. Their wares were traded far across England, and the industry was unique to Ipswich for 200 years.[5][6] With growing prosperity, in about 720 AD a large new part of the town was laid out in the Buttermarket area. Ipswich was becoming a place of national and international importance.[7] Parts of the ancient road plan still survive in its modern streets. After the invasion of 869 Ipswich fell under Viking rule. The earth ramparts circling the town centre were probably raised by Vikings in Ipswich around 900 to prevent its recapture by the English.[8][9] They were unsuccessful. The town operated a Mint under royal licence from King Edgar in the 970s, which continued through the Norman Conquest until the time of King John, in about 1215.[10] The abbreviation 'Gipes' appears on the coins. King John granted the town its first charter in 1200, laying the mediaeval foundations of its modern civil government.[11][12] In the next four centuries it made the most of its wealth, trading Suffolk cloth with the Continent.[citation needed] Five large religious houses, including two Augustinian Priories (St Peter and St Paul, and Holy Trinity, both mid-12th century[13]), and those of the Greyfriars (Franciscans, before 1298), Ipswich Whitefriars (Carmelites founded 1278-79) and Blackfriars (Dominicans, before 1263), stood in mediaeval Ipswich. The last Carmelite Prior of Ipswich was the celebrated John Bale, author of the oldest English historical verse-drama (Kynge Johan, c.1538).[14] There were also several hospitals, including the leper hospital of St Mary Magdalene, founded before 1199. During the Middle Ages the Marian Shrine of Our Lady of Grace was a famous pilgrimage destination, and attracted many pilgrims including Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon.[15][16] At the Reformation the statue was taken away to London to be burned, though some claim that it survived and is preserved at Nettuno, Italy.[17] Around 1380, Geoffrey Chaucer satirised the merchants of Ipswich in the Canterbury Tales. Thomas Cardinal Wolsey, the son of a wealthy landowner, was born in Ipswich about 1475. One of Henry VIII's closest political allies, he founded a college in the town in 1528, which was for its brief duration one of the homes of the Ipswich School.[18] He remains one of the town's most famed figures. In the time of Queen Mary the Ipswich Martyrs were burnt at the stake on the Cornhill for their Protestant beliefs. A monument commemorating this event now stands in Christchurch Park. From 1611 to 1634 Ipswich was a major centre for emigration to New England. This was encouraged by the Town Lecturer, Samuel Ward. His brother Nathaniel Ward was first minister of Ipswich, Massachusetts, where a promontory was named 'Castle Hill' after the place of that name in north-west Ipswich, UK. The painter Thomas Gainsborough lived and worked in Ipswich. In 1835, Charles Dickens stayed in Ipswich and used it as a setting for scenes in his novel The Pickwick Papers. The hotel where he resided first opened in 1518; it was then known as The Tavern and is now known as the Great White Horse Hotel. Dickens made the hotel famous in chapter XXI of The Pickwick Papers, vividly describing the hotel's meandering corridors and stairs. In 1824, Dr George Birkbeck, with support from several local businessmen, founded one of the first Mechanics' Institutes which survives to this day as the independent Ipswich Institute Reading Room and Library. The elegant 15 Tavern Street building has been the site of the Library since 1836. In 1797 Lord and Lady Nelson moved to Ipswich, and in 1800 Lord Nelson was appointed High Steward of Ipswich. In the mid-19th century Coprolite was discovered, the material was mined and then dissolved in acid, the resulting mixture forming the basis of Fisons fertilizer business
31 Photos
Created 7 October 2009
Newark-on-Trent (generally shortened to Newark) is a market town in Nottinghamshire in the East Midlands region of England. It stands athwart the River Trent, the Great North Road and the East Coast Main Line railway. History Signpost in Newark-on-Trent [edit] Pre Norman history A major silver and gold Iron Age torc, the first in Nottinghamshire and very similar to those found at Snettisham, was found in 2005 in what is now a field on the outskirts of Newark,[5] and in 2008 was acquired by the town's museum.[6] The origins of the town itself, however, are possibly Roman and originate in its position on the great Roman road called the Fosse Way, in the valley of the Trent. In a document which purports to be a charter of 664, Newark is mentioned as having been granted to the Abbey of Peterborough by Wulfhere. A pagan Anglo-Saxon cemetery, used from the early 5th to the early 7th centuries, has been found in Millgate, in Newark, close to both the Fosse Way and the River Trent in which cremated remains were buried in pottery urns.[7] In the reign of Edward the Confessor it belonged to Godiva and her husband Leofric, Earl of Mercia, who granted it to the monastery of Stow in 1055, who retained its incomes even after the Norman Conquest as came under the control of the Norman Bishop Remigius de Fécamp. After his death it changed to, and remained in the hands of, the Bishops of Lincoln from 1092 until the reign of Edward VI. There were burgesses in Newark at the time of the Domesday survey, and in the reign of Edward III, there is evidence that it had long been a borough by prescription. The Newark wapentake in the east of Nottinghamshire was established during the period of Anglo-Saxon rule (10-11 centuries AD). [edit] Mediæval history The Newark castle "was originally a Saxon fortified manor house, founded by King Edward the Elder. In 1073, Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln founded an earthwork motte and bailey fortress on the site. From 1123-33, Bishop Alexander the Magnificent completely rebuilt the castle, when founding a prominent stone structure of ornate construction."[8] The river bridge was built about the same time under charter from Henry I, also St. Leonard's Hospital. He also gained from the king a charter to hold a five-day fair at the castle each year. He gained a charter under King Stephen to establish a mint in the town. Newark Castle The town became a local centre for the wool and cloth trade, certainly by the time of Henry II a major market was established. Wednesday and Saturday markets in the town were established during the period 1156-1329 when a series of charters granted to the Bishop of Lincoln made them possible.[9] King John died of dysentery in Newark in 1216. Following his death as Henry III tried to bring order to the country the mercenary Robert de Gaugy refused to yield Newark Castle to the Bishop of Lincoln, its rightful owner, leading to the Dauphin of France (later King Louis VIII of France) laying an eight day siege on behalf of the king, ended by an agreement to pay the mercenary to leave. Around the time of Edward III's death, and excluding beggars and clergy, in "1377 – Poll tax records show adult population of 1,178 making Newark one of the biggest 25 or so towns in England".[10] [edit] Church of St. Mary Magdalene Church of St. Mary Magdalene, Newark-on-Trent * See Church of St. Mary Magdalene, Newark-on-Trent [edit] Tudor era In 1457 a flood swept away the bridge over the Trent and, although there was no legal requirement for anyone to replace it, the Bishop of Lincoln, John Chaworth, financed the building of a new bridge, built of oak with stone defensive towers at either end. Following the break with Rome in the 16th century, the subsequent establishment of the independent Church of England, and the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII had the Vicar of Newark, Henry Lytherland executed when he refused to acknowledge the king as head of the Church. The dissolution affected Newark's political landscape heavily, and even more radical changes came in 1547 when the Bishop of Lincoln exchanged ownership of the town with the Crown. Newark was incorporated under an alderman and twelve assistants in 1549, and the charter was confirmed and extended by Elizabeth I. [edit] Stuart era Charles I, owing to the increasing commercial prosperity of the town, reincorporated it under a mayor and aldermen, and this charter, except for a temporary surrender under James II, continued to be the governing charter of the corporation until the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. [edit] The Civil War During the English Civil War, Newark was a mainstay of the royalist cause, Charles I having raised his standard in nearby Nottingham. It was attacked in February 1643 by two troops of horsemen, but beat them back. The town fielded at times as many as 600 soldiers, and raided Nottingham, Grantham, Northampton, Gainsborough, and others with mixed success, but enough to cause it to rise to national notice. At the end of 1644 it was besieged by forces from Nottingham, Lincoln and Derby, the siege was only relieved in March by Prince Rupert of the Rhine. Parliament commenced a new siege towards the end of January 1645 following more raiding, but this was relieved by Sir Marmaduke Langdale after about a month. Newark cavalry fought with the king's forces which were decisively defeated in the Battle of Naseby, near Leicester in June 1645. The final siege began in November 1645, by which time the town's defences had been greatly strengthened. Two major forts had been constructed just outside the town, one, called the Queen's Sconce, to the south-west and another, the King's Sconce to the north-east, both close to the river, together with defensive walls and a water filled ditch 2¼ miles in length, around the town. In May 1646 the town was ordered to surrender by Charles I, which was still only accepted under protest by the town's garrison. After the surrender most of the defences were destroyed, including the castle which was left in essentially the state it can be seen today. [edit] Georgian era and early 19th century Newark Castle and Bridge in the early 19th century. Around 1770 the Great North Road around Newark (now the A1) was raised on a long series of arches to ensure it remained clear of the regular floods it experienced. A special Act of Parliament in 1773 allowed the creation of a town hall next to the Market Place. Designed by John Carr of York and completed in 1776, Newark Town Hall is now a Grade 1 listed building. In 1775 the Duke of Newcastle, at the time the Lord of the Manor and a major landowner of the area, built a new brick bridge with stone facing to replace the dilapidated one next to the castle. This is still one of the major thoroughfares in the town today. A noted advocate of reform in the late 18th century at Newark was the local-born printer and newspaper owner Daniel Holt (1766-1799). He was imprisoned for printing a leaflet advocating parliamentary reform and selling a Thomas Paine pamphlet. An account of his life by Alan Dorling is in the Nottinghamshire Historian journal, spring/summer 2000, pages 9-15 and further details in the autumn/winter edition of 2003, pages 8-12. In the milieu of parliamentary reform the duke of Newcastle evicted over a hundred tenants at Newark whom he believed supported directly or indirectly the Liberal/Radical candidate (Wilde) rather than his candidate (Michael Sadler, a progressive Conservative)at the 1829 elections. See the report in Cornelius BROWN 1907, ii, 243 following; and the report in the Times for 7 October 1829. A report in the Times of 10 September 1832 lists ten of the evicted people by name and address. J.S. Baxter, who was a schoolboy in Newark from 1830 to 1840, contributed to The hungry forties: life under the bread tax (London, 1904), a book about the Corn Laws: "Chartists and rioters came from Nottingham into Newark, parading the streets with penny loaves dripped in blood carried on pikes, crying 'Bread or blood.'" [edit] Victorian era The Victorian era saw a lot of new buildings and industry, such as Independent Chapel (1822), Holy Trinity (1836-37), Christ Church (1837), Castle Railway Station (1846), Wesleyan Chapel (1846), The Corn Exchange (1848), Methodist New Connexion Chapel (1848), W.N. Nicholson Trent Ironworks (1840s), Northgate Railway Station (1851), North End Wesleyan Chapel (1868), St. Leonard's Anglican Church (1873), Baptist Chapel (1876), Primitive Methodist Chapel (1878), Newark Hospital (1881), Ossington Coffee Palace (1882), Gilstrap Free Library (1883), Market Hall (1884), Unitarian Chapel (1884), The Fire Station (1889), Waterworks (1898) and the School of Science and Art (1900). Most of these buildings can still be seen today. These changes and the other industrial expansion that went with them saw the population of the town grow from under 7,000 in 1800 to over 15,000 by the end of the century.
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Created 7 October 2009
Yes, where Fleetwood Mac came from! Couldn't believe I put my feet in the estuary of the Irish Sea!
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Created 7 October 2009
Chester (pronounced /ˈtʃɛstər/) is a city in Cheshire, England. Lying on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales, it is home to 77,040 inhabitants,[1] and is the largest and most populous settlement of the wider unitary authority area of Cheshire West and Chester, which had a population of 328,100 according to the 2001 Census.[2] Chester was granted city status in 1541. Chester was founded as a "castrum" or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix in the year 79[citation needed] by the Roman Legio II Adiutrix. Chester's four main roads, Eastgate, Northgate, Watergate and Bridge, follow routes laid out at this time – almost 2,000 years ago. One of the three main Roman army bases, Deva later became a major settlement in the Roman province of Britannia. After the Romans left in the 5th century, the Saxons fortified the town against the Danes and gave Chester its name. The patron saint of Chester, Werburgh, is buried in Chester Cathedral. Chester was one of the last towns in England to fall to the Normans in the Norman conquest of England. William the Conqueror ordered the construction of a castle, to dominate the town and the nearby Welsh border. In 1071[citation needed] he created Hugh d'Avranches, the 1st Earl of Chester. Chester has the reputation of being the "English medieval city par excellence", but many of its buildings are from the Victorian era.[3] Along with Derry, Chester makes a claim for being one of the best preserved complete walled cities in the British Isles[4][5][6] It has the most complete city walls in Great Britain,[7] and most sections of the walls are listed Grade I. The Industrial Revolution brought railways, canals, and new roads to the city, which saw substantial expansion and development – Chester Town Hall and the Grosvenor Museum are examples of Victorian architecture from this period. History Main article: History of Chester [edit] Roman Main article: Deva Victrix Model of how Deva Victrix would probably have looked. The Romans founded Chester as Deva Victrix in the 70s AD in the land of the Celtic Cornovii, according to ancient cartographer Ptolemy,[8] as a fortress during the Roman expansion northward.[9] It was named Deva either after the goddess of the Dee,[10] or directly from the British name for the river.[11] The 'victrix' part of the name was taken from the title of the Legio XX Valeria Victrix which was based at Deva.[12] A civilian settlement grew around the military base, probably originating from trade with the fortress.[13] The fortress was 20% larger than other fortresses in Britannia built around the same time at York (Eboracum) and Caerleon (Isca Augusta)[14]; this has led to the suggestion that the fortress, rather than London (Londinium), was intended to become the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Superior.[15] The civilian amphitheatre, which was built in the 1st century, could seat between 8,000 and 10,000 people.[16] It is the largest known military amphitheatre in Britain,[17] and is also a Scheduled Monument.[18] The Minerva Shrine in the Roman quarry is the only rock cut Roman shrine still in situ in Britain.[19] The fortress was garrisoned by the legion until at least the late 4th century.[20] Although the army had abandoned the fortress by 410 when the Romans retreated from Britannia,[21] the civilian settlement continued (probably with some Roman veterans staying behind with their wives and children) and its occupants probably continued to use the fortress and its defences as protection from raiders from the Irish Sea.[20] [edit] Medieval Deverdoeu was still one of two Welsh language names for Chester in the late 12th century; its other and more enduring Welsh name was 'Caerlleon', literally "the fortress-city of the legions", a name identical with that of the Roman fortress at the other end of the Welsh Marches at Caerleon in Monmouthshire, namely Isca Augusta. The colloquial modern Welsh name is the shortened form, Caer. The early Old English speaking Anglo Saxon settlers used a name which had the same meaning, Legacæstir, which was current until the 11th century, when, in a further parallel with Welsh usage, the first element fell out of use and the simplex name Chester emerged. From the 14th century to the 18th the city's prominent position in North West England meant that it was commonly also known as Westchester. This name was used by Celia Fiennes when she visited the city in 1698.[22] [edit] Industrial history Chester played a significant part in the Industrial Revolution which began in the North West of England in the latter part of the 18th century. The city village of Newtown, located north east of the city and bounded by the Shropshire Union Canal was at the very heart of this industry[citation needed] The large Chester Cattle Market and the two Chester railway stations, Chester General and Chester Northgate Station, meant that Newtown with its cattle market and canal, and Hoole with its railways were responsible for providing the vast majority of workers and in turn, the vast amount of Chester's wealth production throughout the Industrial Revolution. [edit] Archaeology Between 14 May, 2007 and 6 July, 2007, excavations were carried out in Grosvenor Park. The main aim was to find Cholmondeley's lost mansion, which was demolished in 1867. A number of finds have come to light including: * Plaster work from the mansion ceiling. * Civil War musket balls * Clay tobacco pipes (17th-18th century) * Clay tobacco pipe waster clay from manufacture * A base of a small Roman statue of Venus * A Roman votive offering in the form of a lead axe head. Canals Canal cutting by Chester's city walls From about 1794 to the late 1950s, when the canal-side flour mills were closed, narrowboats carried cargo such as coal, slate, gypsum or lead ore as well as finished lead (for roofing, water pipes and sewerage) from the leadworks in Egerton Street (Newtown). Grain from Cheshire was stored in granaries on the banks of the canal at Newtown and Boughton and salt for preserving food arrived from Northwich. The Chester Canal had locks down to the River Dee. Canal boats could enter the river at high tide to load goods directly onto seagoing vessels. The port facilities at Crane Wharf, by Chester racecourse, made an important contribution to the commercial development of the north-west region[citation needed]. The original Chester Canal was constructed to run from the River Dee near Sealand Road, to Nantwich in south Cheshire, and opened in 1774. In 1805, the Wirral section of the Ellesmere Canal was opened, which ran from Netherpool (now known as Ellesmere Port) to meet the Chester Canal at Chester canal basin. Later, those two canal branches became part of the Shropshire Union Canal network. This canal, which runs beneath the northern section of the city walls of Chester, is navigable and remains in use today. [edit] Proposed canal The original plan to complete the Ellesmere Canal was to connect Chester directly to the Wrexham coalfields by building a broad-gauge waterway that stretched from the River Dee at Holt to the Llangollen Canal at Trevor Basin, near Wrexham. However with the advent of railways and high land prices, the plan was eventually abandoned in the mid 19th century. If the waterway had been built, canal traffic would have crossed the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct heading north to the River Dee. Boats would then have sailed on to Chester rejoining the Shropshire Union Canal through a purpose-built lock flight at Boughton. As the route was never completed, the short length of canal north of Trevor was infilled. The Llangollen Canal, although designed to be primarily a water source from the River Dee, became a cruising waterway despite its inherent narrow nature. It would be rail that was to bring Welsh coal to Chester. [edit] Railways Chester formerly had two railway stations. Chester General railway station remains in use but Chester Northgate closed in 1969 as a result of the Beeching Axe.[41] Chester Northgate, which was located North East of the city centre, opened in 1875 as a terminus for the Cheshire Lines Committee. Trains travelled via Northwich to Manchester Central. Later services also went to Wrexham General via Shotton Station. It was demolished in the 1970s; the site is part of the Northgate Arena leisure centre. Chester General, which opened in 1848, was designed with an Italianate frontage. It now has seven designated platforms but once had more. The station lost its original roof in the 1972 Chester General rail crash. In September 2007 extensive renovations took place to improve pedestrian access, and parking.[42] The present station has manned ticket offices and barriers, waiting rooms, toilets, shops and a pedestrian bridge with lifts. Chester General also had a large marshalling yard and engine sheds, most of which has now been replaced with housing. The Dee Bridge disaster in May 1847 Normal scheduled departures from Chester Station are: multiple services on the North Wales Coast Line; Virgin Trains to London Euston via Crewe; Arriva Trains Wales to Manchester Piccadilly via Warrington Bank Quay and Cardiff Central via Wrexham General; Northern Rail to Manchester Piccadilly via Northwich; Merseyrail to Liverpool on the Wirral Line. In late 1847 the Dee bridge disaster occurred when a bridge span collapsed as a train passed over the River Dee by the Roodee. Five people were killed in the accident. The bridge had been designed and built by famed-railway engineer Robert Stephenson for the Chester and Holyhead Railway. A Royal Commission inquiry found that the trusses were made of cast iron beams that had inadequate strength for their purpose. A national scandal ensued many new bridges of similar design were either taken down or heavily altered. [edit] Trams Chester had an extensive tram network during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It covered an area as far west as Saltney, on the Welsh border, to Chester General station, Tarvin Road and Great Boughton in the northwest. The network featured the narrowest gauge trams (3' 6") in mainland Britain, due to an act of Parliament which deemed that they must be the least obstructive possible.[citation needed] The tramway was established in 1871 by Chester Tramways Corporation. It was horse-drawn until its electrification by overhead cables in 1903. The tramway was closed, like most others in the UK, in February 1930. All that remains are small areas of uncovered track inside the bus depot, and a few tram-wire supports attached to buildings on Eastgate/Foregate Street, although substantial sections of the track remain buried beneath the current road surface.
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Created 7 October 2009
The market place Melbourne is located in Derbyshire Melbourne Melbourne is a Georgian market town (population 6,500) in South Derbyshire, England. It is about eight miles south of Derby and two miles from the River Trent. In 1837 a then tiny settlement in Australia was named after William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, Queen Victoria's first Prime Minister, and thus indirectly takes its name from Melbourne Hall, seat of the Lamb family, and the village. History The name Melbourne name derives from "mill on the brook". It was first recorded in Domesday Book (DB 1086 Mileburne = mill stream) as a royal manor A parish church was built around 1120. In 1311 Robert de Holand fortified the existing royal manor house to create Melbourne Castle, though the fortification was never completed. Jean, duc de Bourbon, the most important French prisoner taken at the Battle of Agincourt (1416), was detained at the castle for 19 years. Mary, Queen of Scots, was to be imprisoned at Melbourne Castle, but it had by now deteriorated into a bad state of repair. By the early 17th Century it had fallen into decay and was demolished, although some remains can still be seen. Melbourne Hall was originally owned by the church; it was constructed in stages, mainly in the 17th and 18th century. Since 2005 Melbourne has run an Arts Festival every September. Notable Residents * Robert Bakewell, Ironsmith, started his career here in 1706. * John Joseph Briggs, Naturalist lived in Kings Newton and published a History of Melbourne * Thomas Cook Travel Agent, was born here in 1808. * William Dexter, Painter was born here in 1808. * Viscount Melbourne British Prime Minister, 1834 and 1835-1841. * Rowland Ordish Civil engineer was born here in 1824. * John Young, Cricketer was born here in 1876. Places of Interest The church Melbourne parish church has been described as a "cathedral in miniature" and is one of five churches in Melbourne. The Domesday Book records a church and priest here in 1086. The present church was built about 1120, and most of the original masonry is intact, except for the East end which has been refurbished. The roofs, naves, aisles and the aisle windows date from the restoration of the 1630s. There was also a restoration done by Gilbert Scott in 1859-62.[8] Melbourne Hall was originally the rectory house for the Bishop of Carlisle, but was substantially rebuilt by Thomas and George Coke in the early 18th century. The hall's gardens were laid out with the assistance of Royal gardeners in 1704. They contain examples of ironwork by Derby ironsmith, Robert Bakewell. Melbourne Pool was originally the mill pool for the hall's mill. The hall is open to the public in August. The Thomas Cook Memorial Cottages in High Street were built by Thomas Cook who started popular travel in England. Cook was born in Melbourne in 1808 though his birth-place was demolished in 1968. The buildings built in 1890-91 include fourteen cottages, a bakehouse, a laundry and Mission Hall. They still provide accommodation for some of Melbourne's senior citizens. Melbourne Market Place is the location of Melbourne's main shops. It is dominated by the Co-op Building and monument which was refurbished in 1998. [edit] Culture, Industry and Transport The town contains many Georgian buildings and in the 19th Century was a centre for framework knitting and boot and shoe manufacture eg Fairystep Shoes. Market gardening has always been a major part of the economy, though now only a handful remain. East Midlands Airport, five miles to the east of the town, was opened in the 1960s and has now become a significant regional transport hub. Then town's bus service is run by Arriva Midlands.Previously,TrentBarton maintained a small garage here,allocated approximately 7 vehicles but this is now a Budgens supermarket. School Buses run to Chellaston every morning and afternoon using the 205, 206, 207, 208 and 209 buses, run by Harpurs and Hawkes. It maintained routes to Swadlincote,Derby,Aston-on-Trent and Weston-on-Trent. There have been links to East Midlands Airport which recently were axed due to low passenger numbers and poor quality service. A new route is expected by Summer 2010. Shops in Melbourne include - The Spar - Budgens - Melbourne News - Fish and Clips - Birds - Elle of Melbourne - Blatch's - The Bay Tree - Melbourne Cafe - Co-op Travel - And a number of cafe shops Services in Melbourne include - HSBC - Natwest - Post Office - Co-op Pharmacy - Fair Trade In the past Melbourne had three brass bands which disappeared over the years. In 1992 a new group formed, and became Melbourne Town Band.[9] The Town Band continue to play at Melbourne's events today. These include the carnival, held every Summer and the carols at the Market Place.
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Created 7 October 2009
Grantham is a market town within the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England. It stands athwart the East Coast Main Line railway (London-Edinburgh), the historic A1 main north-south road, and the River Witham. Grantham is located approximately 26 miles (42 km) south of the city of Lincoln, and approximately 24 miles (39 km) east of Nottingham. The resident population is 34,592[citation needed] in around 18,000 households, including the village of Great Gonerby. The town is best known as the birthplace of former prime minister Margaret Thatcher, and the place where Isaac Newton went to school. It is within short walking distance of an ancient Roman road, and was the scene of Oliver Cromwell's first advantage over Royalists during the English Civil War at Gonerby Moor. Grantham is also notable for having the first female police officers in the United Kingdom, in 1914. 2 Post offices were closed in Grantham in 2008 as part of the Post Office Network Change programme.
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Created 6 October 2009
Edinburgh (pronounced /ˈɛdɪnb(ə)rə/ (Speaker Icon.svg listen), ED-in-brə or ED-in-bə-rə; Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann) is the capital city of Scotland. It is the second largest Scottish city, after Glasgow[1], and the seventh-most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council is one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. Located in the south-east of Scotland, Edinburgh lies on the east coast of the Central Belt, along the Firth of Forth, near the North Sea. . Owing to its rugged setting and vast collection of Medieval and Georgian architecture, including numerous stone tenements, it is often considered one of the most picturesque cities in Europe. The city forms part of the City of Edinburgh council area; the city council area includes urban Edinburgh and a 30-square-mile (78 km2) rural area. Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Parliament. The city was one of the major centres of the Enlightenment, led by the University of Edinburgh, earning it the nickname Athens of the North. The Old Town and New Town districts of Edinburgh were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995. There are over 4,500 listed buildings within the city.[2] In the 2008 mid year population estimates, Edinburgh had a total resident population of 471,650.[3] Edinburgh is well-known for the annual Edinburgh Festival, a collection of official and independent festivals held annually over about four weeks from early August. The number of visitors attracted to Edinburgh for the Festival is roughly equal to the settled population of the city. The most famous of these events are the Edinburgh Fringe (the largest performing arts festival in the world), the Edinburgh International Festival, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, and the Edinburgh International Book Festival History Further information: Timeline of Edinburgh history and Etymology of Edinburgh During its pre-history in the Iron and Bronze Ages, humans existed in the area around Holyrood, Craiglockhart Hill and the Pentland Hills, leaving traces of primitive stone settlements.[6] At the time of its actual foundation, it was a part of the Kingdom of Northumbria, an Anglian kingdom on the east side of Great Britain, spanning from the Humber Estuary to the Firth of Forth.[7] The area surrounding Castle Rock, then known as "Lookout Hill," became the foundation point.[7] On the hill Edwin of Northumbria a powerful Christian king founded the fortress to secure the northern part of his territory against invasion.[7] This fortress was known in the Brythonic language as Din Eidyn, which means "Edwin's fort" after the king.[7][8][9][10][11] As the fortress grew, many houses were relocated towards the ridge of Castlehill. A layout began to form, when householders would be given the option to be granted a "toft" or stretch of garden behind the ridge.[12] The name eventually developed through the English language into first Edwinesburch and then into Edinburgh, the name it is known by today.[7] Hereford Mappa Mundi, featuring Edinburgh in 1300. In the 10th century the Scots captured the position. Then in the 12th century a small town flourished at the base of the castle known as Edinburgh, along side which another community rose up to the East around the Abbey of Holyrood, known as Canongate. In the 13th century these became Royal Burghs. As a consequence of Edinburgh's earlier Anglo-Saxon rule and settlement, Edinburgh and the Border counties lay in a disputed zone between England and Scotland, England claiming all Anglo-Saxon Domains as English territory, and Scotland claiming all territory as far south as Hadrian's Wall. The result was a long series of border wars and clashes, which often left Edinburgh Castle under English control. It was not until the 15th century, when Edinburgh remained for the most firmly under Scottish control, that King James IV of Scotland undertook to move the Royal Court from Stirling to Holyrood, making Edinburgh by proxy Scotland's capital. As Edinburgh remained under Scottish rule, with the nearby port of Leith, Edinburgh flourished both economically and culturally. In 1603, following King James VI's accession to the English and Irish thrones, James VI instituted the first executive Parliament of Scotland which met in the Great Hall of Edinburgh Castle, later finding a home in the Tolbooth, before moving to purpose-built Parliament House, Edinburgh, which is now home to the Supreme Courts of Scotland[citation needed]. In 1639 disputes over the planned merger, between the Presbyterian Church and the Anglican Church, and the demands by Charles I, to reunify the divided St. Giles' Cathedral, led to the Bishops' Wars, which in turn led to the English Civil War, and the eventual occupation of Edinburgh by the Commonwealth forces of Oliver Cromwell. In the 1670s King Charles II commissioned the rebuilding of Holyrood Palace. 1732 saw Lord Lyon King of Arms grant a coat of arms to the Town Council, a modified version of which is used today as the city's official emblem. During the last Jacobite rebellion, Edinburgh was briefly occupied by Jacobite forces before their march south into England. After the retreat of Jacobite forces from Derby, it was equally briefly occupied by Hessian forces under the command of the Prince William, Duke of Cumberland before their march north to the Highlands. An 1802 illustration of Edinburgh from the west. Following the defeat of Jacobites there was a long period of reprisals and pacification. At this time, the Hanoverian monarch wished to stamp his identity on Edinburgh and new developments to the north of the castle were named in honour of the King and his family; George Street, Frederick Street, Hanover Street, Queen Street, Princes Street, Castle Street and with control of the ‘Rose’ of England and the ‘Thistle’ of Scotland these names were also allocated to streets. The original plan for this build was to be constructed in the form of King James VI's Union Flag and this shape can be detected when viewing the layout of the aforementioned streets from above. Out of the problems left behind by the consequences of the Jacobite rebellion came a number of Scottish intellectuals, many from Edinburgh, including Adam Smith, who promoted the idea of Britishness. It was during this period, that Edinburgh expanded beyond the limits of its city walls, with the creation of the New Town, following the draining of the Nor Loch, which has since become Princes Street Gardens. Edinburgh became a major cultural centre, earning it the nickname Athens of the North because of the Greco-Roman style of the New Town's architecture, as well as the rise of the Scottish intellectual elite in the city, who were increasingly leading both Scottish and European intellectual thought. Edinburgh today Edinburgh is particularly noted for its fine architecture, especially from the Georgian period. In 17th-century Edinburgh, a defensive city wall defined the boundaries of the city. Due to the restricted land area available for development, the houses increased in height instead. Buildings of 11 stories were common, and there are records of buildings as high as 14 stories,[citation needed] and thus are thought to be the pioneers for the modern-day skyscraper. Many of the stone-built structures can still be seen today in the old town of Edinburgh. In the 19th century, Edinburgh, like many cities, industrialised, but most of this was undertaken in Leith, which meant that Edinburgh as a whole did not grow greatly in size. Glasgow soon replaced it as the largest and most prosperous city in Scotland, becoming the industrial, commercial and trade centre, while Edinburgh remained almost purely Scotland's intellectual and cultural centre, which it remains to this day as one of the greatest cultural centres of the UK and the world.
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Created 6 October 2009
Belvoir Castle (pronounced Beaver) En-belvoir_castle.ogg listen (help·info) is a stately home in the English county of Leicestershire, overlooking the Vale of Belvoir (grid reference SK820337). It is a Grade I listed building.[1] The castle is near several villages, including Redmile, Woolsthorpe, Knipton, Harston, Harlaxton, Croxton Kerrial and Bottesford, and the town of Grantham. A corner of the castle is still used as the family home of the Manners family and remains the seat of the Dukes of Rutland. Contents [hide] * 1 Castle * 2 Estate * 3 Present use * 4 References * 5 External links [edit] Castle A Norman castle originally stood on the high ground in this spot. During the English Civil War, it was one of the more notable strongholds of the king's supporters. It eventually passed into the hands of the Dukes of Rutland and following a fire, was rebuilt by the wife of the 5th Duke, and gained its present Gothic castle look. The architect James Wyatt was chiefly responsible for this restructuring, and the result is a building which bears a superficial resemblance to a medieval castle, its central tower reminiscent of Windsor Castle. The present Castle is the fourth building to have stood on the site since Norman times. Belvoir was a royal manor until it was granted to Robert, 1st baron de Ros in 1257. When that family died out in 1508 the manor and castle passed to George Manners, who inherited the castle and barony through his mother. His son was created Earl of Rutland in 1525, and John Manners, 9th Earl of Rutland was created Duke of Rutland in 1703. So Belvoir castle has been the home of the Manners family for five hundred years, and seat of the dukes of Rutland for over three centuries. The castle is open to the public and contains many works of art. The Queen's Royal Lancers Regimental Museum of the 17th and 21st Lancers was established here in 1964 but was required to leave in October 2007. The highlights of the tour are the lavish staterooms, the most famous being the Elizabeth Saloon (named after the wife of the 5th Duke), the Regents Gallery and the Roman inspired State Dining Room. [edit] Estate The castle sits in a vast estate of almost 15.000 acres (120 km²). The landscaped grounds, nearer the castle, are also open and the Root Houses, built by the fifth Duke's wife, can also be seen. The present Duchess is restoring Belvoir Gardens, which includes the Secret Valley Garden and the Rustic Summerhouse of 1800. The estate is open to the public and offers a range of outdoor activities - shooting, fishing, quad biking and four-by-four driving. Throughout the year they host sheep, duck and dog exhibitions. The Duke and Duchess of Rutland also manage Manners Arms [1], a country hotel and restaurant on the Belvoir estate. [edit] Present use A corner of the castle is still used as the family home of the Manners family. The castle's name means beautiful view. "The name "Belvoir",is in fact, a Norman import by the French-speaking conquerors, though the native Anglo-Saxon population was unable to pronounce such a foreign word, preferring to call it "Beaver Castle". Belvoir Castle is still pronounced "Beaver" -- despite its spelling -- to this very day, which may actually go a long way to explaining the age-long animosity between the insulted French and the traditionalist English.
91 Photos
Created 6 October 2009
History of York From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Question book-new.svg This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2007) York within England. The history of York as a city dates to the beginning of the first millennium AD but archaeological evidence for the presence of people in the region of York date back much further to between 8000 and 7000 BC. As York was a town in Roman times, its Celtic name is recorded in Roman sources as Eboracum and Eburacum; after 400, Anglo-Saxons took over the area and adapted the name by folk etymology to Old English Eoforwīc, which means "wild-boar town", and the Vikings, who took over the area later, in turn adapted the name by folk etymology to Norse Jórvík meaning "horse bay." After the Saxon settlement of the North of England, Anglian York was first capital of Deira and later Northumbria, and by the early 7th century, York was an important royal centre for the Northumbrian kings. Following the Norman Conquest of 1066, York was substantially damaged but in time became an important urban centre as the administrative centre of the county of Yorkshire. York prospered during much of the later medieval era; the later years of the 14th and the earlier years of the 15th centuries were characterised by particular prosperity. During the English Civil War, the city was regarded as a Royalist stronghold and was besieged and eventually captured by Parliamentary forces under Lord Fairfax in 1644. After the war, York slowly regained its former pre-eminence in the North, and, by 1660, was the third-largest city in England after London and Norwich. Modern York has 34 Conservation Areas, 2,084 Listed buildings and 22 Scheduled Ancient Monuments in its care. Every year, thousands of tourists flock to see the surviving medieval buildings, interspersed with Roman and Viking remains and Georgian architecture.
87 Photos
Created 6 October 2009
David participated for his parent company CSY
36 Photos | 1 Sub-Album
Created 4 October 2009
Barbara & David our hosts for weeks at their home-awesome couple-so welcoming Jon's daughters-Katheryn,m Gillian and son Paul and significant others-Chris with Katheryn, Michael and daughter Ashley with Gillian and Ruth, Tom and cutie Izzy with his son Paul
19 Photos
Created 4 October 2009
Just up the road from the cottage
No Photos
Created 4 October 2009
29 Photos
Created 3 October 2009
7 Photos
Created 3 October 2009
9-4-2009 Visit to Gillian, Michael, and Ashley-Jon's youngest daughter
31 Photos
Created 3 October 2009
11 Photos
Created 3 October 2009
On the way to Scotland-Beautiful hills and valleys-narrow roads-fast speedlimits!
64 Photos
Created 3 October 2009
Katheryn's house and vicinity 8-15-2009
42 Photos
Created 3 October 2009
8-16-2009 First Day in England/UK
43 Photos
Created 2 October 2009
68 Photos | 1 Sub-Album
Created 2 October 2009
Ticknall August 1-21, 2009 Chris's cottage
25 Photos
Created 2 October 2009
8-15-2009 Jon and I
64 Photos
Created 2 October 2009
4 Photos
Created 25 March 2009
21 Photos
Created 15 March 2009
1 Photo
Created 15 March 2009
11 Photos | 1 Sub-Album
Created 15 March 2009
22 Photos | 1 Sub-Album
Created 15 March 2009
68 Photos
Created 27 February 2009
57 Photos
Created 24 February 2009
62 Photos | 1 Sub-Album
Created 24 February 2009